The Jewish Colonial Settlement
the Royal Committee for Jerusalem Affairs
The Jewish Colonial Settlement
Upon the restoration of Jerusalem from the Crusaders by the Sultan Salah Eddeen Al-Ayyoubi (Saladin) in 587 Hijriah (1187 A.D.), he permitted the Jews to reside in the city. Since then, the Jews began to emigrate and to reside in the city.
They were motivated by various factors. The most important of which was the increased tempo of the religious persecution of the Jews in the European countries.
Thus, they moved towards the Islamic regions. The number of the Jews coming to Jerusalem increased . This process was accelerated in the aftermath of the fall of Andalusia to the Spaniards, who expelled all the non- Catholics from Spain.
This also coincided with the submission of the Arab countries to the dominance of the Ottomans. The latter followed a tolerant policy towards the non-Muslim followers of other religions, including the Jews.
This is evidenced by the decree issued by the Sultan Bayazid the Second (1481-1512) calling for the good treatment of the Jews residing in his realm.
The following table illustrates the number of the inhabitants of Jerusalem of various religious sects in the sixteenth century A.D.
The increase in the number of Jews came as a result of the processes of expulsion that was inflicted on the Muslims and the Jews by the Spaniards in the year 1492, after they had occupied the whole of Andalusia. Some of the Jewish expellees headed towards Jerusalem.
The Jews resided in three of Jerusalem’s neighborhoods. These were Al-Sharaf, Al- Reeshah and Al- Maslakh. They did live in seclusion in these Quarters within the midst of an Islamic majority.
However the number of Jews in Jerusalem decreased during the eighteenth century A.D.
In the year 1752, a census was conducted for the Jews in the city. It showed that there were 115 persons only. Yet, their numbers witnessed a gradual increase during the nineteeth century. This increase was due to the increased Jewish influx, especially from East Europe, that was a result of increased Jewish persecution in that area.
The increased influx coincided with the increase of the influence of the European states in the Ottoman state.
The European states competed in offering protection and nationality for the Jews. This was a part of the European states continuous efforts to strenghten their influence within the Ottoman state.
Another number of Jews moved to Jerusalem from other Palestinian towns. This was particularly so after the earthquake of 1837, which was very severe in the area of north Palestine.
Thus, a number of Jews moved from Tiberias and Safad and settled in Jerusalem.
The Jews in Jerusalem were composed of two religious sects:
- The Sephardim, who emigrated mainly from Spain and Morocco.
- The Ashkenazi ( Siknaj) who hailed from Central and East Europe, particularly Poland, Hungary and Russia. A large number of those Jews had the nationality (citizenship) of the states of Europe, especially from Russia, Britain, Austria and America.
The number of Jews holding foreign nationality in Jerusalem was estimated at 5000 at the beginning of the second half of the nineteeth century.
They were distributed among a number of Western states as follows:
Holland and America
During the Egyptian occupation of Jerusalem between 1831-1840, the Jews tried to gain some religious and economic advantages.
This was so since Mohammad Ali followed a tolerant attitude towards the Christians and the Jews. He permitted the Sephardi Jews to rebuild their Synagogue which was destroyed by the earthquake of 1837.
He also gave permission in 1836 to the Ashkinazi Jews to build a place of worship and a religious school. He also abolished all the taxes and levies that were imposed by the local chiefs that were not sanctioned by the state.
The Jews also tried to exploit the new poltical circumstances to broaden their ecoomic activity to include land purchase and agriculture. But these efforts were met with the objection of both the officials of the Egyptian administration as well the Jerusalem Consultative Council.
The Jews went a step further when they attempted to acquire religious rights and gains in the Borak area. This was demonstrated through raising their voices during the visit to the western wall of the Borak.
It was also evident through the petition submitted by one of the Jews, with the help of the English Consul, to the Egyptian authorities to allow him to pave (tile- lay) the area in front of the Borak in the Moroccan Quarter.
By the second half of the nineteenth century, the number of Jews in the city increased as a result of the first Jewish emigration wave that took place between 1882-1904 and the sesond one between 1905-1914. Most of which originated from the countries of eastern Europe, especially Russia Poland and Romania.
By the end of the nineteenth century, the Jews congregated in a concentrated manner inside the walls. They inhabited two neighbourhoods:
- Al-Sharaf neighbourhood (The Jewish Quarter). The Jews became a majority here with most of their synagogues, schools, presses, hotels and hospitals.
- Al-Kattaneen neighbounhood with a mixture of Muslims and Jews.
The Establishment of the settlement Colonies:
Since the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century, there came into existence a systematic settlement movement supported by a number of rich Jews and the leaders of the Zionist Movement.
It was the latter who formulated the plans for Jewish gradual settlement in preparation for the establishment of the Jewish national home in Palestine.
These plans were supported and assisted by the European states, especially Britain, France, Austria and Germany.
This stage began in 1859 when the British Jew, Moshe Montifiore, bought a piece of land to the west of the Jerusalem wall and built the colonial settlement Mishkanot Shaananeem. By the end of the Ottoman era in 1914, the Jews had established 24 colonial settlement quarters in west of Jerusalem as follows:
Montifiore (Mishkanot Shaananeem)
Mahane Yisrael (Israel’s Camp)
Nihlat Shifaa (The Seventh Colony)
Shaknot Habokharim (The Houses of the Bukharis)
Mi-aat Shaarim (Hundred Gates)
Nihlat Tsvi (Tsvi Colony)
Evin Israel (Israel’s Stone)
Nihlat Shamoon Hatisdiq (The colony of the friend Shamoon)
Bnai Yacoob (Jacob’s Children)
Bnai David (David’s children)
Shaar Moshe (Moshe’s Door)
Mahane Yahuda (Israel’s Garrison)
Shaknot Hashalom (The Habitats of Peace)
Shaari Tsaydiq (Tsaydig Gate)
Zakhron Tobia (The Good Memory)
Kiryat Nimaat (Nimaat Village)
Zakhron Moshe (Moshe’s Memory)
Nihlat Tizion (Zion’s Colony)
Jifaat Shaul (Shaul Hill)
Settlement’s Supporting Activities
The Jewish colonial settlement in Jerusalem was accompanied with a lot of activities in support of the colonization process.
Among These Activities were :
First : Building of Schools:
The Jews established a cluster of schools to provide education to the children of the Jewish colonial settlers in Jerusalem.
The schools imbued those children with the Zionist creed.
These schools were categorized as follows :
1- The Religious Schools :
These were subject to the supervision of the Jewish clergy. Its curriculum and teaching was restricted to religious studies only. By world war I, these schools totaled seven.
In addition to four Yashiva Schools, in which students enroll until they reach 13 years of age.
2- The Schools Connected To Jewish Foreign
During the second half of the nineteeth century, a group of Jewish schools, belonging to Jewish educational foundations in European capitals, were established in Jerusalem. Among these were:
A- The Israeli Universal Federation (The Alliance), headquartered in Paris. It supervised an elementary school for boys established in 1882 and another school for girls established in 1906. This is in addition to a mixed vocational school that was established in 1897.
B- The Halvareen Organization, headquartered in Berlin. This organization supervised lamel school, which was in Jerusalem in 1856 by the Jews of Austria.
C- The English-Jewish Society, which was founded by the Jews of Britain in 1871. It supervised the Evlaina de Rothchild School that was established in Jerusalem in 1864.
3- The Zionist Jewish Schools :
The Zionist Jewish organizations established and funded a number of schools in Jerusalem. These included a boys elementary school that was built in 1913 as well the high Hebrew school (Jerusalem Gymnasium).
The Jews published several Hebrew newspapers in Jerusalem. In 1863, the first Hebrew newspaper was issued in Jerusalem. The Jewish newspapers began to multiply to the point where between 1863-1904, 25 newsparers and pamphlets were issued. Only one continued to be published between 1870-1914.
The Jews established a number of hospitals in the city. In 1843, Moshe Montifiore established a Jewish clinic in the city. In 1854, Rothshild established the Misgava Ladakh Hospital. By the year 1893, there were three hospitals in the city.
The Jewish colonial settlement in Jerusalem led to the rise of a rejectionist trend, which viewed this project as a Judaization of Palestine and its economic and social setup.
Yusuf Dia Al-Khalidi was at the forefront of those who realized the true nature of the Zionist covetous schemes in Palestine. He wrote articles and sent letters detailing the Jewish designs in Palestine. He raised in the Majlis Al-Mabothan (The Ottoman House of Deputies) the question of the Zionist movement and its covetous designs in Palestine. Among the pioneering objectors to the Zionist scheme were Tahir Bin Mustafa Al- Husseini (The Mufti of Jerusalem towards the end of the Ottoman era) and Saeed Al- Husseini, the mayor of Jerusalem in 1906.
Jewish Colonial Settlement In Jerusalem During The Time Of The British Occupation
Jewish colonial settlement in Jerusalem assumed a new dimension following the British occupation of the city in 1917. This was especially so since the British Administration encouraged Jewish emigration to Palestine and allowed the Jews to buy lands.
It even gave them the possession of state lands (community property).
During this period, the second stage of the Zionist scheme to occupy and Judaize the city was put into operation.
The following were the steps pursued in this connection:
A- Re-planning the city
In 1918, Britain laid out a structural survey plan of Jerusalem. Accordingly, the city was divided into four areas:
1- The old city and its walls.
2- The areas surrounding the old city.
3- East Jerusalem (The Arab one)
4- West Jerusalem( The Jewish one).
The plan strictly forbade construction in the areas surrounding the old city. It also placed restrictions on building in East Jerusalem, whereas it proclaimed West Jerusalem as a development area. In 1921, the boundaries of the municipality of Jerusalem were delineated. The municipality included the old city and a 400 metres wide strip along the eastern side of the city’s wall. This was in addition to the neighbourhoods of Bab Al- Sahirah, Wadi Al- Jooz, and Sheikh Jarrah on the nothern side. As for the western side, the boundaries of the municipality were widened to encompass the Jewish colonial groupings and some Arab villages including Al-Katamoan; Higher Baqaa and lower Baqaa, Al-Talibiah, Sheikh Badr and Maaman allah.
B- Encouragement of Jewish Immigration To
Britain opened the doors of Palestine to the Jewish immigrants, which led to the increase in their numbers in Palestine in general. A large number of Jewish immigrants settled in Jerusalem, which contributed to the demographic change in favour of the Jews. The Jews in Palestine, for example, numbered 83790 in 1922; 40.7% living in Jerusalem. But in 1948, they numbered 716700; 11.6% residing in Jerusalem.
This led to an increase of the number of the Jews in Jerusalem at the expense of its Muslim and Christian Arab inhabitants. The following table illustrates the picture:
Arabs (Muslims And Christians)
% Of Jews
The Jews in Jerusalem were scattered in the two parts of the city: The old city (inside the wall) and the new city outside the wall.
The Following table shows the distribution of the inhabitants of the city in 1931. Their number in that year was 90503.
The table reveals that the majority of the Arabs (Muslims and Christians) were living within the old city while most Jews lived in the new city, where they were the majority therein.
C- The Judaization Of The Municipal Council:
Upon its occupation of Jerusalem in 1917, Britain formed immediately a new municipal council composed of six members divided equally among the three religious denominations. There were two members for each of the Muslims, Christians and Jews.
In 1926, the British Government increased the members of the council to 12. There were five Muslims, three Christians and four Jews. In 1935, it divided the city into 12 electoral constituencies: six for the Jews and six for the Arabs ( Muslims and Christians). Thus, the Jews got half the membership of the municipal council.
At the same time, Britain tried to appoint a Jew to head the Municipal Council, but the Arab Islamic and Christian opposition thwarted this.
In 1944 when the mayor Mustafa Al- Khalidi died, Britain appointed his deputy, the Jew Daniel Oster, as a head of the Municipality.
The Muslim and Christian members resigned in protest. The British government then abolished the municipal council and formed a municipal committee composed of a president and four members, all of whom were English.
D- The Concentration of Zionist establishments In
With the assistance of the British Administration, the Zionist movement moved a number of the Jewish establishments to Jerusalem. Thus, Jerusalem became the centre for the executive committee of the World Zionist Organization, The Jewish Agency, the Constituent Fund (Keren Haysood); The Jewish National Fund; The National Council of Lishoof and the headquarters of the chief rabbinate.
The Hebrew University in Jerusalem was opened in 1925 and the Hadasah Hospital in 1939.
E: The Construction Of Colonial Settlements And
Under the protection and active assistance of Britain, the Jews continued to establish colonial settlements in the areas surrounding Jerusalem, especially in the western side. The following table shows the Jewish colonial settlements that were established during the period of the British Mandate:
Name Of The Colonial Settlement
Year Of Establishment
Ahozat Bani Brait
The 1948 War And Its Effect On The Jewish Colonial Settlement In Jerusalem
During the 1948 War, the Israeli forces were able to occupy 37 Arab villages in the periphery of Jerusalem.
It forced its Arab inhabitants to leave them. It established on their ruins Jewish colonial settlements and inhabited them with Jewish immigrants. The Israeli forces also expelled the Arab inhabitants from the western part of the city. Sources indicate that 80,000 Palestinians were forced to leave Jerusalem and its villages to become refugees.
They were not allowed to return to their homes and properties. Jews were encouraged to move into the vacated areas. Thus, the number of Jews jumped from 84000 (during the 1948 War the number of Jews decreased because of the war) to 196,000 in 1967.
The increase in the Jewish demography in West Jerusalem was accompanied by the establishment of the Jewish colonial settlements at the ruined sites of the Arab villages and areas, whose Arab inhabitants were expelled.
This was the fate of Abo Toor, Baqaa, Katamoan, and the villages of Deir Yaseen, Ain Karim, Ashoo and Lefta.
The Israeli government raced ahead with the Judaization of the city. It moved the Israeli High Court, the seat of the Knesset and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It declared Jerusalem to be the capital of the state of Israel and called on other states to move their embassies to Jerusalem.
Waleed Al-Khalidi mentioned the destruction of 38 villages in the Jerusalem administrative district whose inhabitants numbered 28801 persons. In addition, Israel confiscated all the lands of these villages.
Jewish Colonial Settlement
In Jerusalem After 1967
The Israeli government pursued an aggressively vicious policy aimed at Judaizing the city. It used the following methods towards this goal:
A- Enlargement of the boundaries of the municipality of Jerusalem :
Since its occupation of the holy city, Israel worked to widen the boundaries of the municipality of East Jerusalem. The aim is to annex more lands and areas to the city of Jerusalem.
The area of East Jerusalem was 6.5 square kilometres before it was occupied in June 1967.
The area of West Jerusalem was 38 square kilometres. On the 28th of June 1968, the Israeli occupation authorities widened the boundaries of the municipality of East Jerusalem to become 70.5 square kilometres. This was done through the annexation of 28 villages and areas adjacent to Jerusalem in the east. Thus, the area of the municipality of Jerusalem (The two eastern and western parts) became 108.5 square kilometres.
In 1990, it widened the City westward so that the area of the two parts became 123 square kilometres. Israel aims to achieve the following as a result of these steps:
· Changing the demographic composition of the city through increasing the number of Jews and limiting the number of Arabs.
· The isolation of Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank areas as well as the isolation of the areas of the West Bank from each other.
· Establishing a fait accompli before moving to the final negotiations phase. The following table illustrates the area of the municipality of Jerusalem in dunums between 1949-1993.
No- Man’s Land
B- The Evacuation Of The City Of Jerusalem From Its Legitimate Inhabitants :
Israel has sought from the moment of its occupation of the eastern part of the holy city to evacuate it from its Arab inhabitants.
It prevented the inhabitants residing outside it from returning there. It also withdrew the Jerusalem identity cards from a large number of the inhabitants of the city under the pretext that they were residing outside the city.
Statistics indicate that during 1967-1997, the identity cards of 4169 Arab household heads have been withdrawn.
At the same time, the Israeli authorities prevented the children of the Jerusalemites who reached the age of 16 years from acquiring identity cards of their own. The number of those persons is estimated 16,000. The Israeli aim is to prevent them from residing in Jerusalem.
Simultaneously, the number of Jews in the old city increased during 1967-2002, as shown by the following table :
All of them congregate in the Islamic Quarter in the Jewish colonial settlement complex that was built on the ruins of the two Arab neighbourhoods: Al- Magharbah and Al- Sharaf. This is in addition to a number of small colonial settlement spots inside the houses that the Jews usurped in the Islamic Quarter.
The colonial settlement assault resulted in the usurption of the Jewish colonial settlers of around the fifth of the area of the old city. The Jews possess 20% the Christians 29% and the Muslims 52% . It is to be remembered that the Jews possessed nothing in 1967.
This was accompanied by a decrease in the number of the Arab inhabitants (especially the Christian ones) whose number in 1995 became 6483 after it was 6994 in 1967.
C- The Confiscation Of Arab Lands And Settlement Therein:
Since its occupation of East Jerusalem in 1967, Israel seized large tracts of Arab lands in the eastern sector of Jerusalem.
In 1968, for instance, 4701 dunums belonging to the city were usurped. In the same year, Israel confiscated 116 dunums within the old city in the Moroccan and Al- Sharaf neighbourhoods. There are 595 Arab buildings in these two Quarters with 6000 Arabs living there. They were all expelled and a Jewish colonial Quarter was constructed on the site housing 2300 Jews. In addition, the Israeli authorities confiscated a number of Arab homes in East Jerusalem and settled Jews therein.
Starting with the first day of its occupation of East Jerusalem, the Israeli authorities established numerous colonial settlements in the city and its periphery.
The aim was to build a series of annular settlement layers forming defensive lines in the city. Thus, the city will be separated from the rest of the areas of the West Bank.
The entry and exist from the city will be subject to Israeli control.
The following table illustrates the number of Jewish colonial settlements, the year of establishment and the land area confiscated during 1967-1993.
Israeli colonial settlements in Jerusalem between 1967-1993 :
Name Of Colonial Settlement
Year Of Confisca-tion
Year Of Constr-uction
Confiscated Area In Dunums
Jewish Settlement Area In Dunums On May 1993
Number Of Dwelling Units
Ramat Eshkol And Jaafat Hamftar
The French Hill (Jaafat Shpira)
The Hebrew University And Mount Scopus
Bisgat Zaeiv And Bisgat Oomar
2083 Under Construction
300 Ready Homes And 3000 Under Construction
6500 Under Construction
49130 Plus 11583 Under Construction(2)
The Israeli government encouraged the Jewish colonial settlers to reside in these colonial settlements. Their numbers continued to increase. Their number in 1993 was 152800 and in 1995 became 160400. This in addition to the fact they are in control of 86% of the land within the boundaries of the municipality of East Jerusalem. This resulted in an increase of the number of Jews in the city ( in both the Eastern and Western parts), compared to the Arab inhabitants.
The following table illustrates the numbers of the Arab inhabitants and the Jewish colonial settlers in Jerusalem between 1975-1996:
Jewish Colonial Settlers
Israeli Measures In Support Of Jewish Colonial Settlement In Jerusalem :
1- The Annexation of Jerusalem:
On 27th of June 1967, the Israeli Knesset (parliament) passed a law extending the jurisdiction of the law of the state, Judiciary and administration over an area of 69990 dunums.
This meant the annexation to Israel of the whole of old Jerusalem and wide areas in its periphery extending from Soor Bahir in the south to Kalandia Airport in the north.
On the following day, 28th of June 1967, the Israeli Interior Minister issued a decision extending the boundaries of the municipality of Jerusaelm to encompass the afore- mentioned areas.
On the 30th of July 1980, the Israeli Knesset approved the basic law designating Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. The aim of the law is to prevent the achievement of a settlemment regarding Jerusalem, and that no decision in this regard can be made without resorting to the Knesset.
2- Judaization Of The Public Utilities And Services:
Immediately after its occupation of East Jerusalem , Israel abolished the Arab administration in the city. It dissolved the Arab municipal council and attached the officials of the Arab departments to the Israeli departments. It forced the Arab professionals to join the Israeli associations in order to allow them to practise their professions and run their businesses.
3- Closure, Isolation And Siege :
The Israeli Authorities isolated Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank areas . It prevented the citizens from visiting Jerusalem except by special permits.
4- Destruction of the Arab Economic Activity:
Israel weakened the Arab economic activity in Jerusalem. It banned the establishment of industrial Arab projects and imposed heavy taxes on the existing projects. Similar high taxes were imposed on the Arab inhabitants to sap their activities and force them to emigrate from Jerusalem. This particularly applies to the so- called Arnonah property tax.
The Arabs contribute 25% of the budget of the city, while they get only 5% of the muncipal services provided.
5- Effacement Of Arab National Culture And Judaization Of Education:
Israel abolished the educational Arab curriculum and applied Israel’s curriculum onto the Arab schools. The total apparatus of Education and Instruction in Jerusalem was attached to the Israeli Education Ministry.
6- Acts Of Aggression Against Muslim And Christian Religious Places:
The occupying power, Israel authorization encouraged the Jewish colonial settlers to pray in the Haram Al- Shareef while, at the same time, limiting the freedom of access of the Muslims and Christians to their holy places. Israel strives to put its hand on the Islamic and Christian religious sites in preparation for their elimination of them and the establishment of the so- called Temple upon their ruins. This is evidenced by the excavations carried out by the Israeli authorities under the Aqsa Mosque under the guise of looking for the relics of the alleged Temple. Perhaps, the most dangerous act of aggression against the religious sites was the deliberate arson carried out by a fanatic Jew inside the Aqsa Mosque on 21 August 1969.
7-Demolition Of Homes:
During 1967-1999, 2000 houses in the Eastern part of Jerusalem were demolished by the Israeli army. The pretext was that they were built without a license. It is to be noted that the Israeli procedures and laws render it impossible for any Arab citizen in Jerusalem to get a building license.
The process of demolitions was not confined only to houses. It included the demolition ( and confiscation) of some Islamic religious and archaeological buildings, schools and places such as:
· Demolition and erasure in 1968 of Al- Afdaliah School in the Moroccan Quarter.
· The confiscation by the Israeli armed forces in 1969 of the Tankaziah School.
· The confiscation by the Israeli armed forces in 1968 of the Koran (Muslim Holy Book) School.
· The Israeli authorities demolished Al- Khankah Al- Fakhriah in 1965.
· The Israeli occupation authorities took hold of the Jerusalem castle in 1967.
8-Promulgation Of illicit Laws:
Since its occupation of the eastern part of Jerusalem in June 1967, Israel enacted a number of laws that aimed at strengthening its hold and control of the various aspects of the City and the realization of its designs to Judaize the City.
The following are some of these illicit laws:
A- Law No. 1: The Law Of The Annexation Of Jerusalem
On the 27th of June 1967, the Israeli Knesset took a decision, in the form of a supplemental paragraph to an Israeli law (known as the 1948 law of administration and order), that permitted the government of Israel to annex Jerusalem.
On the following day, the secretary of the government of Israel issued an order (which he called number one order of law and order for the year 1967).
In this order, he stated that the area of the land of Israel covered by the table (attached to the order) is subject to the law of the administration of the Israeli state. That table contained the zoning area of the municipality of Jerusalem that was under the Arab administrative rule.
On the following day, the Israeli army issued an order dissolving the elected Arab municipal council and the expulsion of the Arab Mayor, Rohi Al-Khateeb.
B- Basic Law ( Jerusalem – Capital Of Israel) :
· The whole and the united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
· Jerusalem is the seat of the residence of the head of the state; Knesset; the government and the High Court.
· The holy places are immune from desecration or anything else that may impinge on the freedom of access of the adherents of faiths to get to their holy sites.
· The government is keen on and strives to develop Jerusalem and assure its prosperity and the welfare of its citizens. This is to be accomplished through the allocation of special resources, including an annual special grant to the municipality of Jerusalem. (The grant to the capital is through the approval of the financial committee of the Knesset).
· Jerusalem shall be accorded special priorities in all the works of the authorities of the state so as to develop Jerusalem in the economic and public services sphere.
· The Government is to form a body (Corporation) or bodies to implement this Item.
C- The Law For The Preservation Of The Holy Places For The Year 1967:
1- The holy places shall be protected from the violation of their sanctity. They shall also be protected from anything else that may touch on the freedom of access of the adherents of religions to the places they hold sacred, or their feelings towards these places.
2- A: Anyone who violates the sanctity of a holy place or in fringes upon it in any other way shall be punished by a seven years imprisonment term.
2-B: Anyone who commits an act that may touch on the freedom of access of the adherents of religions to the places they hold sacred, or to their feelings towards these places, shall be punished by a five years jail term.
On the surface, the provisions of these laws show an Israeli ostensible keeness on the freedom of religious sito moncler.
However, the reality is completely the opposite. Israel allows free access to Jews to get to the religious places that they claim to be their religious places, while it prevents the Muslims and Christians from reaching their religious places. The best example is evident in the fact of its prevention of Muslims from performing the Friday prayer in the Aqsa Mosque.
D- The Law Of The Absentees Properties
In 1967, Israel conducted a process of total census for the inhabitants of Jerusalem. It registered all the (Arab) citizens who were there at the time. It forced them to get identity cards within three months. The citizens who were not there were considered as absentees. Israel raced ahead in applying the law of the properties of the absentees on all the properties of the Arab absentees.
E- The Law Of Compensation
Israel passed a law for the compensation of the properties of Arab citizens in Jerusalem.
The aim was to consecrate the confiscation of the Arab properties and assign legal cover therein.
F- The Law Of The Restoration Of The Jews For Their Properties In The Old City
On the 23rd of August 1968, the Israeli Knesset passed a law enabling the Jews to regain the houses that were owned or rented by them from the Arabs.
The Arab owners, on the other hand, have no right under the Israeli law of reclaiming their possessions like the Jewish owners. The Arab right is limited only to having compensations.
G - The Law Of The Application Of The Accord In Respect Of The Gaza Strip And Jericho
This law was aimed at preventing the Palestinian Authority from engaging in any activity in Jerusalem. This is so since, according to the Israeli conception, Jerusalem is considered an indivisible part of Israel. The law was known as the 1994 law for restriction of activities.
1- The Palestinian Authority shall not establish or operate a representation or hold any meeting within the boundaries of the authority of the state of Israel, unless it obtains a written permission from the government or those authorized by the government. Within this context, the concept of the Palestinian Authority includes any person working for the Authority or under its supervision or who uses its name.
2- The minister of the police is authorized , by an order issued by him, to prevent the opening or activation of any representation of the Palestinian Authority. He also can order its closure and prevent any meeting that did not get the permission refered to above. This law came into operation on the first of May 1995. It was signed by the Israeli prime minister, the head of the Knesset and the head of the state.
H- The Law Of The Control Of Schools For The Year 1969
Since the onset of its occupation of Jerusalem, the Israeli authorities made the Israeli educational curriculum the one followed in Jerusalem. The occupation authorities issued in 1969 the law of the supervision of schools which aimed at total supervision of all schools.
I - The Law Of Taking Possession
Israel diverted the law of taking possession in a way contrary to the goals of all laws of possession. Public use, from an Israeli point of view, means the evacuation of Arab houses and the expulsion of its Arab citizens. After that, these properties are repaired or new buildings are erected on their sites so that new Jewish immigrants are housed therein.
The Israeli authorities issued possession order no: 1443 which was published in the official gazette on the 14th of April 1968. Under this order, 16 dunums were confiscated in the Arab Islamic neighborhoods in the old city of Jerusalem.
Its inhabitants were expelled. The aim was to build 300 housing units to accommodate 350 persons. Under possession order No: 1656 dated the 30th of August 1980, 1180 dunums of the land of Jerusalem were confiscated under the guise of public use. 100 dunums of these surround the walls of the old city of Jerusalem.
J - The 1952 Law Of Entry To Israel
According to this law, the citizen of Jerusalem is considered a permanent citizen, but does not hold the Israeli citizenship unless he applied for it.
He has the right to vote for the municipal council, but not for the parliament. He loses the right of residence in Jerusalem in the following three cases:
1- If he acquires another nationality (citizenship) other than the Jordanian citizenship.
2- If he acquired the right of residence in another state.
3- If he stayed outside Israel for seven continuous years.
K - The Law of Return
Under this law, the Minister of the Interior has the right to withdraw the rights of citizenship in Jerusalem from a Jerusalemite citizen. This is so, since Jerusalem is considered part of Israel. Israel resorts continuously to applying this law on the Palestinian people of Jerusalem. The law does not apply to the Jewish citizens.
L - The 1988 Law of The Jerusalem Development Authority
The law aims at formulating and encouraging the initiatives that seek to develop Jerusalem economically.
In addition, the law aims at coordination among the various ministries and establishments as well as offering advice regarding the economic projects in Jerusalem.
9- Execution Of The Plan of The Closure Of Jerusalem (or The Plan For The Defense Of Jerusalem)
Since the start of 2002, Israel began the implementation of a plan in Jerusalem that it called “ The Plan for the Defense of Jerusalem.” The aim is to erect a 54 kilometer long wall around the city . It is shaped like a bell. It starts at the so- called Hadassah wall to the south and ends at the southwest of what is called Hardar.
It forces the inhabitants to enter the city through main passageways. This wall will require mobile patrols, security roads and excavations of trenches. This means the confiscation of more Palestinian lands. The execution of this plan will be carried out through:
1- Construction of an eleven kilometre long wall to the south of the city in order to separate it from the Bethlehem sector.
2- The construction and placement of military barricades along the whole length of the contact line of Jerusalem.
3- Erection of walls and fences in various quarters in the Jerusalem area.
The plan of the closure of Jerusalem ( Jerusalem’s cover) calls for the establishment of intensive Jewish colonial settlement groupings in the area to close the circle and fill the gaps therein. In other words, the closure of the eastern and northeastern belt area.
- The so- called plan for the defense of Jerusalem is not confined to the presence of security forces; barbed wires and military barricades that may be penetrated by the Palestinians. Colonial settlements were added. Thus all of this will foster the defense of the city and the control of the Jews over it as well as to accelerate the process of its Judization.
The Stages And The Methods Of The Execution Of The So- Called Plan Of Jerusalem Cover
1- Digging trenches on all the passageways leading to the various areas. The occupation forces have actually started digging trenches in Baita, Al- Azariah, Toor and other trenches that will isolate the northwestern villages of Jerusalem from the village of Ras Khamees.
2- Four detachments of the border guards are in place to protect the contact lines . They comprise 900 policeman as well National Reservists.
3- Closure of the Palestinian foundations in Jerusalem: The Israeli occupation authorities have continued the closure of eight Palestinian foundations in Jerusalem. It also has added two foundations to the already closed ones.
4- Encouragement of Israeli colonial settlement in the areas adjacent to Jerusalem out of fear of the spread of the influence of the National Authority therein or it becoming centres for that Authority.
Thus, as Abo Dees developed as a centre for the Palestinian Authority, the municipality of Jerusalem started to prepare for the construction of a Jewish colonial settlement site there. It is building 230 dwelling units on lands that the Jews claim they own in Abo Dees.
The cover of Jerusalem project also contains :
· Establishment of Jewish housing groupings in East Jerusalem.
· Widening the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. A committee in the Ministry of Interior proposed the enlargement of the municipal boundaries westward in order to incorporate a number of the colonial Jewish quarters like Hadassah wall, Motsa and Mafseerat Zion.
· Building settlement roads to connect the Jewish colonial settlements.
· The confiscation of the Arab homes in East Jerusalem and the expulsion of their inhabitants.
· Confiscation of large tracts of Arab lands.
Undoubtedly, the construction of this line will result in dire consequences, such as :
· The erection of the wall on the eastern side of the city will strangle the Jerusalemite economy that is dependent upon tourism and the visitors of the Aqsa Mosque.
· East Jerusalem and all the Palestinian villages nearby will be surrounded by two settlement belts: one inside the boundaries of the municipality of Jerusalem and the other outside these boundaries.
· Usurpation of large tracts of land for the benefit of this line : the colonial settlement and the security fences.
This plan means that Israel has already decided the fate of Jerusalem. That its eastern and western parts are not subject to the political negotiations with the Palestinian National Authority. This means that Israel decides what it wants, and the Palestinians have no alternative but to accept this. The Israeli colonial settlement policy is based upon the Zionist thought, which calls for the expulsion of the Palestinians and replacing them with Jews.This will not lead to a just, comprehensive peace in Palestine.
This colonial settlement policy will lead to a number of dangerous consequences that will affect the peace process.
The confiscation of Arab lands and houses in Jerusalem and the neighboring villages the establishment of colonial settlements on these lands and the settling of Jewish settlers therein will render the peace process in the Middle East an impossible one. The Palestinians who are being expelled from their homes and lands will experience the injustice and repression inflicted on them. They will strive continuously to recover their lands, even by armed force.
Thus, the government and people of Israel should renounce and give up the racist colonial settlement philosophy of the state of Israel. They should recognize the right of the Palestinian people to self- determination and the establishment of their independent state on its soil. Israel should work towards the abrogation of the colonial settlement policy in Jerusalem and other West Bank areas . It should remove the existing colonial settlements and return the confiscated lands and homes to their legitimate owners.
This is the only solution that guarantees the just comprehensive peace in the region and realizes the principle on whose basis the Madrid Conference was convened as well as the Oslo Accord and the Jordanian- Israeli Treaty.
The principle calls for the exchange of land for peace. If this is to be realized, then it can be said that this peace is a just and comprehensive one that will be accepted by and defended by all generations.
This just demand is supported by the resolutions of international legitimacy, especially the resolutions of the United Nations with its various organizations.
These resolutions emphasize that East Jerusalem is a part of the Arab territories that was occupied in 1967.
All international laws, conventions and charters apply to Jerusalem in the same manner that it applies to lands and people who are under occupation. These resolutions call on Israel, as the occupying power, not to affect any alteration by changing or exchanging the geographical, demographic, architectural or historical spheres.
They (the resolutions) consider all the Israeli laws and measures that changed or led to change as null and void and should not be issued in the future. The resolutions stress that the colonial settlements are illegal, and that the transfer of the colonial settlers therein is illegal and contravenes all international laws and agreements. They (the resolutions) also affirm that the Geneva Convention of the 12th of August 1949 applies to Jerusalem and the other occupied lands.
These resolutions emphasize the return of Jerusalem and all the occupied territories since 1967 to their legitimate owners as well as the necessity of preserving the historical, archaeological and religious places.
References And Bibliography
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2- Abul Raii, Marwan Awwad, The Awqaf (Religious Endowments) of Jerusalem and Their Effect in the Economic Development, a master degree thesis, university of Al- Yarmouk 1999.
3- Abdul Azeez, Hisham Fawzi, Jewish Educational Instruction in Palestine until the End of the Secondary Stage 1920-1948, A master degree thesis, the university of Jordan, 1993.
4- Al-Asali, Kamil, Jerusalem in the Nineteeth Century 1831-1917 A.D. (Jerusalem in History). Amman, the University of Jordan Press, Publications of the Deanship of Scientific Research, first edition, 1992.
5- Al-Arif, Arif, The Detailed History of Jerusalem, Al- Maarif Press, Jerusalem, first edition, 1961.
6- Al-Dabbagh, Mustafa Mourad, Our Country Palestine, part 8, volume 2, Beirut, Dar Al- Taleeh for Printing and Publication, first edtion, 1974.
7- Al- Hoot, Bayan Nowayhid, Palestine: the Cause, the People, the Civilization, Beirut, Dar El – Istiklal for studies and Publication, first edition, 1991.
8- Al-Khalidi, Waleed, Lest We Forget, Beirut, the Palestinian Studies Foundation, first edition 1997.
9- Al-Khalidi, Waleed, The Book of Zionism or the Zionist Question by Rouhi Al- Khalidi, Palestinian Studies, Beirut, The Palestinian Studies Foundation, first edition, 1988.
10- Awad, Abdul Azeez, The Zionist Greediness in Jerusalem , The Palestinian Encyclopedia, second part; special studies; volume 6, Beirut, first edition 1990.
11- Al-Yaacoub, Mohammad, The Nahiyat Administrative District of Venerable Jerusalem in the Tenth Century Hijri- The Sixteenth Century A.D, Publications of the National Bank of Jordan, First edition 1999.
12- Islayim, Ali Mohammad, The History of Zionist Settlement in Palestine- no place or date of publication.
13- Jiryis, Sabri, The History of Zionism, 1279-1368 Hijri (1862-1948,) Beirut, The Palestinian Research Center, 1978.
14- Jiryis, Sameer, Jerusalem: the Zionist Schemes, the Occupation and the Judaization. Beirut, the Palestinian Studies Foundation, first edition, 1981 Doudoune Moncler.
15- Kasmiah, Khayriah, the Zionist Activity and Its Echo in the Arab Orient 1908-1918, Beirut, first edition, 1973.
16- Mahafdah, Ali, The German- Palestinian Relationships 1841-1945, Beirut, The Arab Foundation for Studies and Publication, first edition, 1980.
17- Manaa’, Adel, The History of Palestine in the Later Stage of the Ottoman Era 1700-1918, Beirut, the Palestinian Studies Foundation, first edition, 1999.
18- Manaa’, Adel, Palestine Notables in the Later Stage of the Ottoman Era, 1800-1918, Beirut, the Palestinian Studies Foundation, second edition, 1995.
19- Rafiq, Abdul Kareem, Palestine During the Ottoman Era : the Palestinian Encyclopedia; second part; special studies; second volume, Historical Studies, first edition, 1990.
20- Shofani, Elias, Brief Summary of Palestine Political History; Beirut; the Palestinian Studies Foundation, second edition, 1998.
21- Sholish, Alexander, Radical Transformations in Palestine 1856-1882 A.D, translated from the German language by Kamil Jameel Al- Asali, Amman, the University of Jordan Press, first edition, 1988.
(1) A section of the confiscated area was turned into an archaeological site after the discovery of archaeological relics in the place.
(1) In addition, 600 dunums were confiscated in the Ramat Raheel colonial settlement in Jaffa street and designated a common area. Thus, the total area of the confiscated lands becomes 28095 dunums, as stated in the annual statistical book issued by the municipality of Jerusalem.
(2) The total number of the established housing units is 49130. The total number of the housing units under construction in the colonial settlements of Rykhis Shofat, Jibaat Hamots and Harhoma is 11583. This is in addition to 300 ready houses in Jaafat Hamots.